Difference between OSI and TCP IP Models – Full Comparison

OSI and TCP IP Models

OSI and TCP/IP Models are known by networking students but what are these?

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, or TCP/IP, is a collection of communication protocols that networking hardware can use to connect to the Internet. On the other hand, a theoretical framework called the Open Systems Interconnection Model, or OSI Model can be used to describe how a network works.

In this post, we’ll give you a tabular comparison of the OSI and TCP/IP models that will be useful for exams that test your computer literacy. But first, let’s look at the history of the OSI and TCP/IP models.

Difference between OSI and TCP IP Model

History of OSI Model

The ISO made an effort to provide comprehensive communications systems and techniques in the late 1970s. With the help of an Advanced Packet Switched computer system in the United Kingdom, the need for arranging higher-stage protocols was discovered in 1973. The OSI version’s original goal in 1983 was to provide an accurate representation of real connectors.

The OSI architecture was initially recognized as a major protocol in 1984 by the ISO. To study in detail about what is OSI Model and the 7 layers OSI Model click on What are the 7 layers of the OSI model- A Complete Guide.


History of TCP/IP Model

Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn, two DARPA scientists who are frequently referred to as the “fathers of the Internet,” created the TCP/IP protocol suite in the 1970s, which is the most widely used network protocol in the entire world.

The TCP/IP model changed as defined in a paper titled “A Protocol for Packet community Interconnection” in 1974. Through 1978, this language had surpassed through attempting out and persisted improvement, ensuing within the TCP/IP protocol suite.


The decision to switch NCP from ARPAnet’s standard language to TCP/IP was made in 1982.

TCP/IP replaced ARPAnet on January 1, 1983, and ARPAnet was shut down in 1990.

Seeing that then, the ARPAnet has given way to the net, and TCP/IP has evolved to keep up with the net’s changing desires.

To know in detail about TCP/IP model click on

(What are the Functions and uses of the TCP/IP Model?)


Difference between OSI and TCP IP Model

Here are some important points of OSI and TCP/IP models:


Difference PointOSI ModelTCP/IP Model
Developed By:It was created by International Standard Organization.It is being created by Advanced Research Project Agency Network.
StructureIt is a structured version that examines how a community operates.It’s far a fashionable-based communication protocol that permits network connections among hosts.
LayersThere are seven layers in total.There are four levels in it.
Connection-OrientedIn the OSI model, the transport layer just examines connections.A layer that is both connection-oriented and connectionless is included in the TCP/IP paradigm.
Data & Physical LayerThe physical layer and information connection layer are two awesome layers in the OSI version.The host-to-community layer in TCP combines the bodily and records link tiers right into a single layer.
Packets DeliveryThe transport layer inside the OSI version ensures packet transport.The transport layer within the TCP/IP paradigm no longer makes sure of packet transport. Still, the TCP/IP approach is more durable.
Well DocumentedThe OSI Model is more well-documented than TCP/IP model.The TCP/IP model is less documented.
Session & Presentation LayerThe OSI version includes presentation and session layers.The TCP version lacks a communication and presentation layer.
Technology dependentWithin the OSI model, protocols are extra thoroughly documented and are easy to update as technology adjustments.Not like in the TCP/IP architecture, in which protocols may be with no trouble switched.
BoundariesOSI has rigid limitations.The TCP/IP version no longer has inflexible boundaries.
Size of HeaderAt least 5 bytes should make up the OSI header.At least 20 bytes must make up a header.
ApproachOSI adopts a vertical method.TCP/IP adopts a horizontal approach.
DistinctionInterfaces, services, and protocols are wonderful according to the OSI paradigm.TCP/IP does not do a good job of describing the differences between services, interfaces, and protocols.
Protocol DependentIt is dependent on the protocol.It does not depend on protocol.


What are the Advantages of the OSI Model?

Advantages of the OSI Model

The advantages of the OSI model are as follows:

Generic Model: A broad variety of device makers embrace it since it is a generic model that serves as a tool for developing any network model. Most computer networks employ the OSI model as a standard paradigm.


Layered model: It has multiple layers. Modifications to one layer have no impact on changes to other layers as long as the interfaces between the layers don’t change significantly.


Troubleshooting: The isolation of one layer from the others in the OSI model simplifies troubleshooting. By examining each layer, the network administrator could more quickly and accurately pinpoint any failure. The analysis of the complete network saves time in this situation.


Facility:  The following can be facilitated by the OSI model;


  • Creation of components
  • The idea of modularity
  • Network architecture
  • Network troubleshooting


Simple Functions: Subdivide a complex function into simpler components.

Layer Recognition: Each layer of the OSI model is assigned services, protocols, and interfaces. The responsibilities in each layer can be distinguished from one another, though, using the OSI model. All hardware that makes use of the OSI model will therefore be able to support one another.

Versatility: The OSI paradigm is flexible and may be implemented to each connection-orientated and connectionless offering. Connection-oriented offerings are probably utilized in instances whilst reliability needs to be upheld. In evaluation, if statistics transfer speed is a situation, connectionless services are the best choice.

If you want to study in detail about Networking protocols to get deeper knowledge in the Networking field click on


What are the Disadvantages of the OSI Model?

There are the following disadvantages of the OSI model:

Model in Theory:  In some cases, it could be challenging if the right technology is not readily available in the OSI theory model.

Restricted Application: The OSI places limitations on its actual application.

Slow: The original OSI model implementation is slow.

Costly: The initial implementation of the OSI paradigm is costly.

Interdependence: The OSI layers are interdependent with one another. OSI layers cannot operate concurrently. The data from the previous layer must be waited for by the subsequent layers. For instance, the presentation layer must wait to receive the data from the session layer before sending it to the application layer, and so on.

Duplication: Some services, such as the transport layer, are repeated throughout multiple tiers in the OSI network layer model.


What are the Advantages of the TCP/IP Model?


Advantages of the TCP/IP Model

There are the following advantages of TCP/IP Protocol:

Deployment: It is an industry-preferred paradigm that may be successfully carried out to real-international networking troubles.

Communication: Because it is interoperable, heterogeneous networks can communicate across platforms.

Scalability: This design is scalable and has an excessive client-server ratio. This enables the addition of networks without impacting the current selection.

Identity: It offers each computer in the community an IP deal with, permitting the community-huge identity of each tool. It assigns a site name to every website. It provides name and address resolution services.

Data Delivery Sequence: The TCP protocol employs sequence numbers that are particular to each packet and is connection-oriented. As a result, it ensures that data is sent in a timely manner without being duplicated. Routers treat TCP packets differently after they have been read.

Control Mechanism: It employs flow control, error control, and congestion control procedures as its control mechanisms.

Throughput: TCP offers a comparatively better throughput when utilized on a LAN or modem.

Independence: It runs without relying on the operating system.

Internetworking: It makes it possible for organizations to communicate online.


What are the Disadvantages of the TCP/IP Model?

The TCP/IP model has the following drawbacks:

Model complexity: TCP/IP requires a lot of setup and management effort.

Replacement of Protocols: It is difficult to replace a protocol in TCP/IP.


The services, interfaces, and protocols that it employs are not clearly separated from one another.

Protocol misrepresentation: It isn’t a generic protocol. As an end result, it could best it should represent the TCP/IP suite of protocols. It cannot, for example, define a Bluetooth connection.


Lack of Layer Segregation: In spite of the physical and records hyperlink layers having quite distinctive functionalities, they’re no longer separated. The transmission of frames ought to be dealt with through the statistics hyperlink layer.  On the other side, the physical layer must choose the transmission’s physical specs. A decent model should be able to distinguish between the two levels.


Small networks like LAN (local area network) and PAN are not optimized for it (personal area network).


Which model—the OSI or the TCP/IP model—is superior?

The conclusion that follows is that every paradigm has distinct strengths and downsides. The OSI paradigm should be chosen over the TCP/IP version if adequate documentation, specification, and modularization are your primary objectives. Although deployment, stability, and public security are your top considerations, the TCP/IP framework must be chosen above the OSI version.


Q. What fundamental differences exist between the OSI Model and TCP/IP?

The TCP/IP model is a hard and fast communication protocol that allows the connection of community gadgets to the net. However, the OSI version provides a theoretical framework that may be applied to explain how a network functions

Q. Why is the OSI model required?

Manufacturers of networking hardware and networking software benefit from the OSI model because it makes hardware and software interoperable with items from any other vendor to enable open interoperability. It also specifies the components of the network that their products should support.

Q. Why is TCP/IP the standard suite in use today?

Because it is standardized compared to competing for networking protocol suites like IPX/SPX and Appletalk, TCP/IP is utilized extensively. Another factor contributing to the widespread use of TCP/IP is the World Wide Web. Within the scope of the Internet protocol family, HTTP is an application layer protocol.

Q. Which model—TCP/IP or OSI—is new?

The OSI model is newer than the TCP/IP paradigm, which is frequently used in the network representation.

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